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The most complete 3D printing material in history

Posted by: Zhou HanPing 2021-12-26 Comments Off on The most complete 3D printing material in history

List of Contents

1. New 3D printing materials created by metallurgy for reference

In the journal Nature in January 2019, scientists from Imperial College London and the University of Sheffield in the UK reported how they used 3D printing technology to create an unusual way by drawing on the concept of metallurgy (M.-S. Pham) s material.

The material previously reported is usually composed of the same “cells” arranged so that they all have the same orientation. As a result, when the load exceeds the yield point, a local high stress zone appears, leading to a catastrophic collapse of the mechanical strength of the material. When the structure is compressed, once the force is sufficient to cause permanent deformation, the lattice will shear along one or more nodal planes. Nothing can restrain this shearing, and the fracture that occurs becomes catastrophic.

Scientists have explored a total of three distinct materials, which require three different 3D printing technologies. As expected, the properties of these materials are important. According to Dr. Minh-Son Pham of Imperial College London, this meta-crystal method can be combined with the latest advances in multi-material 3D printing to open up new research frontiers for the development of new advanced materials that are light in weight, high in mechanical strength, and have Promote the potential for the development of low-carbon technologies in the future.

2. 3D printing piezoelectric materials! Any direction movement is converted into electrical energy

The Virginia Tech research team developed a new method of 3D printing piezoelectric materials. These piezoelectric materials are specially designed to convert movement, impact and pressure in any direction into electrical energy.

Zheng Xiaoyu said: We have synthesized a class of highly sensitive piezoelectric inks that can be sculpted into three-dimensional features by ultraviolet light. These inks contain high concentrations of piezoelectric nanocrystals. These crystals stick together with the UV-sensitive gel to form a solution, a milky white mixture like molten crystals. Then, we print it with a high-resolution digital light 3D printer. The team demonstrated this 3D printed material with a scale that can measure the fraction of the diameter of a human hair. You can customize this architecture to make it more flexible and use them, for example, as an energy harvesting device to cover any curved surface.

The new technology of 3D printing piezoelectric materials developed by the team makes them no longer restricted by shape or size. This material can also be activated to provide a new generation of smart structures and smart materials for tactile perception, impact and vibration monitoring, energy harvesting, and other applications. In these areas, structures made entirely of piezoelectric materials can sense shock, vibration and movement, and monitor and locate them.

3. MIT develops wearable 3D printing mesh materials

A research team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed a 3D printed mesh material that can flexibly customize mechanical properties and geometric shapes. This material can be used to manufacture lightweight and soft wearable braces, as well as implantable medical applications. equipment.

The focus of this research is to provide not only the mechanical properties needed to support human tissues, but also the geometric shapes, and the flexibility and comfort of textile fabrics.

Researchers found the design inspiration for this material in collagen, a natural material. Collagen is a structural protein in human soft tissues. Ligaments, tendons and muscles all contain collagen. The collagen observed under a microscope looks like a twisted and intertwined strand, which becomes straight when stretched.

According to A. John Hart, associate professor of mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this kind of mesh material manufacturing method is relatively simple, and it can be manufactured through an FDM desktop 3D printer. The MIT research team stated that all medical devices that may come into contact with the human body, such as braces, orthotics, and even cardiovascular stents, may become the application scenarios for such 3D printing mesh materials.

Fourth, 3D printing metamaterials with optical properties

In April 2019, a team of engineers from Tufts University in the United States developed a series of 3D printed metamaterials with unique microwave or optical properties.

In this study, researchers at Tufts University’s Nano Lab described a hybrid manufacturing scheme that uses 3D printing, metal coating, and etching to create a wavelength in the microwave range, with complex geometric structures and novel functions. Super material.

For example, they created an array of miniature mushroom-like structures, each with a small patterned metal resonator on the top of the stem. This special arrangement allows microwaves at a specific frequency to be absorbed, depending on the geometry of the selected “mushrooms” and their spacing. The use of such metamaterials is of great value for applications such as medical diagnostic sensors, communication antennas, and imaging detectors.

Sameer Sonkusale said: “The ability to incorporate metamaterials is very useful. We can use these materials to reduce the size of spectrometers and other optical measurement equipment so that they can be designed for portable field research.”

Clariant launches new halogen-free flame-retardant 3D printing materials

Clariant 20% glass fiber reinforced flame-retardant polyamide PA6-GF 20 using Exolit. This 3D printing material uses Exolit halogen-free flame retardant, which can achieve a UL 94 V-0 rating as low as 0.4 mm and a heating wire ignition temperature of 750°C at a thickness of 3.0 mm.

Newly developed 3D printing materials that meet flame retardant, low smoke and non-toxic standards. PA6/66-GF20 FR LS using Exolit flame retardant materials meets EN 45545-2, NFPA 130 (ASTM E162, ASTM E662) and SMP 800-C standards. The material is specially designed for 3D printing, which can achieve ideal mechanical properties, excellent flame retardancy, low smoke and low toxicity. At the same time, unique train application components were also exhibited.

The latest industrial grade PC material

In the last quarter of this year, Polymaker has successively introduced three newest industrial-grade PC (polycarbonate) materials. They are: Polymaker™ PC-ABS, Polymaker™ PC-PBT and PolyMax™ PC-FR.

Polymaker™ PC-ABS, which is a polymer alloy of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) well-known in the market. The properties of this alloy are high impact resistance and heat resistance, and easy processing.

Polymaker™ PC-PBT combines the good chemical resistance of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) materials with the strength and toughness of polycarbonate (PC). Polymaker™ PC-PBT can still maintain good toughness and ductile fracture performance in extreme environments such as contact with hydrocarbon chemicals or sub-zero temperatures.

PolyMax™ PC-FR is a flame-retardant PC material. While retaining the high performance of polycarbonate materials, it can reach the V0 level in the UL94 flame retardancy test.

The new IROPRINT AM platform includes three different polyurethane-based materials:

♦ IROPRINT F filament-a high-performance thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material with stable diameter, suitable for extrusion-based 3D printing methods.

♦ IROPRINT P powder-high-performance powder-based TPU material, suitable for high-speed sintering (HSS) and selective laser sintering (SLS) 3D printing methods.

♦ IROPRINT R resin-suitable for stable, soft, one-component liquid resin, digital light processing (DLP), stereo lithography (SLA) and other radiation curing 3D printing methods.

What are the common materials for traditional 3D printing?

①ABS plastic

ABS is the polymer with the largest output and the most widely used at present. It organically unifies the various properties of PS, SAN and BS, and has the characteristics of toughness, rigidity and rigidity. ABS is a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. A stands for acrylonitrile, B stands for butadiene, and S stands for styrene.

ABS plastic is generally opaque, with a light ivory appearance, non-toxic and odorless, with excellent impact strength, good dimensional stability, electrical properties, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, dyeing properties, molding processing and mechanical processing Both are better.

②PLA plastic

PLA (polylactic acid) is a new type of biodegradable material, made from starch raw materials proposed by renewable plant resources (such as corn). Polylactic acid has good compatibility, degradability, mechanical properties and physical properties. It is suitable for various processing methods such as blow molding and thermoplastic. It is easy to process and has a wide range of applications. At the same time, it also has good gloss and transparency, and good tensile strength and ductility.

There are many kinds of things that can be made with PLA and ABS materials, and there are many overlaps. Therefore, it is difficult to judge from the ordinary product itself. In contrast, ABS is matte, while PLA is very bright. When heated to 195 degrees, PLA can be extruded smoothly, but ABS can’t. When heated to 220 degrees, ABS can be extruded smoothly, and PLA will have bulging bubbles and even be carbonized. Carbonization can block the nozzle, which is very dangerous.

③Engineering plastics

Engineering plastics refer to industrial plastics used as industrial parts or housing materials. Compared with other materials, it has the advantages of balancing strength, impact resistance, aging resistance, hardness and other performance indicators. Therefore, it is currently the most widely used material in 3D printing. Common types of engineering plastics include industrial ABS materials, PC materials, nylon materials and so on.

Industrial ABS material

It is a thermoplastic engineering plastic commonly used in FDM (fused deposition modeling) rapid prototyping process. It has the advantages of high strength, good toughness, and impact resistance. The normal deformation temperature exceeds 90°C. It can be mechanically processed (drilled, tapped), painted, and plating.

3D printed ABS planetary gear and chain model (photo source: Stratasys)

PC material

It is a true thermoplastic material with all the characteristics of engineering plastics: high strength, high temperature resistance, impact resistance, bending resistance, and can be used as a final component. Samples made of PC materials can be directly assembled and used in the transportation and home appliance industries. The color of PC material is relatively single, only white, but its strength is about 60% higher than that of ABS material. It has super engineering material properties and is widely used in consumer electronics, home appliances, automobile manufacturing, aerospace, medical equipment and other fields.

Nylon material

It is a white powder, SLS nylon powder material has the characteristics of light weight, heat resistance, low friction coefficient and wear resistance. The particle size of the powder is small, and the precision of the model is high. Sintered parts do not require special post-treatment, that is, they can have higher tensile strength. The choice of color is not as wide as PLA and ABS, but it can be selected and colored by spray painting, dip dyeing and other methods. The material has a heat distortion temperature of 110°C, and it is mainly used in automobiles, home appliances, consumer electronics, art design and industrial products, and has a wide range of applications.

PC-ABS material

It is one of the most widely used engineering thermoplastics. PC-ABS possesses the toughness of ABS and the high strength and heat resistance of PC materials, and is mostly used in automobiles, home appliances and communications industries. The strength of prototypes made with this material and FORTUS equipment is about 60% higher than that of traditional FDM systems, so using PC-ABS can print out thermoplastic parts including conceptual models, functional prototypes, manufacturing tools, and final parts. .

PC-ISO material

It is a white thermoplastic material that has passed the medical and health certification and has high strength. It is widely used in the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industry, and is used in professional fields such as surgery simulation, skull repair, and dentistry. At the same time, because it has all the performance of PC, it can also be used in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industry. The samples made can be used as conceptual models, functional prototypes, manufacturing tools and final parts.

PSU materials

It is an amber material with a heat distortion temperature of 189°C. It has the highest strength, heat resistance and corrosion resistance of all thermoplastic materials. It is usually used as a final component and is widely used in aerospace. , Transportation and medical industry. PSU materials can bring a direct digital manufacturing experience, with very stable performance, and can achieve amazing results through the use of RORTUS equipment.

Thermoset plastic

Thermosetting resins such as epoxy resins, unsaturated polyesters, phenolic resins, amino resins, polyurethane resins, silicone resins, aromatic heterocyclic resins, etc. have the characteristics of high strength and fire resistance, which are very suitable for the use of 3D printing powder laser sintering molding process. Materials scientists from Harvard University’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Wyss Institute of Bioengineering have jointly developed a 3D-printable epoxy-based thermosetting resin material. This epoxy resin can be 3D-printed into building structures for use in lightweight buildings. .

④Photosensitive resin

Photosensitive resin is composed of polymer monomers and prepolymers. Due to its good liquid fluidity and instant light curing characteristics, liquid photosensitive resin has become the first choice for 3D printing consumables for high-precision product printing. The photosensitive resin has a fast curing speed and excellent surface-drying performance. The appearance of the product after molding is smooth, and it can be transparent to translucent frosted. In particular, the photosensitive resin has low odor and low irritation ingredients, which is very suitable for personal desktop 3D printing systems.

Common photosensitive resins are somos NEXT material, resin somos11122 material, somos19120 material and epoxy resin.

somos NEXT material

White material, new PC-like material, very good toughness, basically can reach the performance of nylon material made by selective laser sintering (SLS, selective laser sintering), but the accuracy and surface quality are better. The parts made of somos NEXT material have the best rigidity and toughness so far, while maintaining the advantages of exquisite workmanship, precise size and beautiful appearance of the light-cured three-dimensional modeling material. They are mainly used in automobiles, home appliances, consumer electronics and other fields.

somos11122 material

It looks more like a real transparent plastic, has excellent waterproof and dimensional stability, and can provide a variety of similar engineering plastic characteristics including ABS and PBT. These characteristics make it very suitable for use in automobiles, medical and electronics Product area.

somos19120 material

It is made of pink, which is a special casting material. After molding, it can directly replace the wax film prototype of precision casting, avoiding the risk of developing molds, greatly shortening the cycle, and having the characteristics of low ash retention and high precision.

Epoxy resin

It is a laser rapid prototyping resin that is easy to cast. It contains very low ash content (residual ash content at 800°C <0.01%). It can be used in fused silica and alumina high-temperature shell systems, and does not contain heavy metal antimony. For the manufacture of extremely precise rapid casting molds.

⑤Rubber materials

Rubber materials have the characteristics of multiple levels of elastic materials. The hardness, elongation at break, tear resistance and tensile strength of these materials make them very suitable for applications requiring non-slip or soft surfaces. 3D printed rubber products mainly include consumer electronics, medical equipment, automotive interiors, tires, and gaskets.

⑥Metal materials

The metal powder used in 3D printing generally requires high purity, good sphericity, narrow particle size distribution, and low oxygen content. At present, the metal powder materials used in 3D printing mainly include titanium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, stainless steel and aluminum alloy materials, and there are also precious metal powder materials such as gold and silver used for printing jewelry.

In the selective sintering method of metal powder, there are three commonly used metal powders:

(1) For a mixture of metal powder and organic binder, the two powders are mixed uniformly in a certain proportion and then laser sintered.

(2) A mixture of two metal powders, one of which has a lower melting point, which acts as a binder during the laser sintering process.

(3) For single metal powder, for unit system sintering, especially high melting point metals, it needs to reach the melting temperature in a short time and requires a high-power laser. The biggest problem in direct metal sintering is the structure of the structure. Porosity leads to low parts density and poor mechanical properties.

Tool steel metal material

The applicability of tool steel comes from its excellent hardness, wear resistance and deformation resistance, as well as the ability to maintain the cutting edge at high temperatures. Die H13 hot work tool steel is one of them, which can withstand process conditions of uncertain time.

Stainless steel metal material

Stainless steel is different from carbon steel. The current chromium content is different. The steel alloy with the lowest 10.5% chromium content is not easy to rust and corrode.

Austenitic stainless steel 316L, with high strength and corrosion resistance, can drop to low temperature in a wide temperature range, can be used in aerospace, petrochemical and other engineering applications, and can also be used in food processing and medical fields.

Martensitic stainless steel 15-5PH, also known as maraging (precipitation hardening) stainless steel, has high strength, good toughness, corrosion resistance, and can be further hardened, and is ferrite-free. At present, it is widely used in aerospace, petrochemical, chemical, food processing, papermaking and metal processing industries.

Martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH still has high strength and high toughness at 315°C, and has super corrosion resistance. With the laser processing state, it can bring excellent ductility.

Alloy metal materials

The most widely used metal powder alloys for metal 3D printing materials mainly include pure titanium and titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, nickel-based alloys, cobalt-chromium alloys, and copper-based alloys.

Titanium alloy

The pure titanium currently used in the market, also known as commercial pure titanium, is divided into grade 1 and grade 2 powder, grade 2 is stronger than grade 1, and is also corrosion-resistant for most applications. Because pure titanium grade 2 has good biocompatibility, it has a wide range of application prospects in the medical industry.

Titanium is the key to the titanium alloy industry. At present, the titanium alloys used in metal 3D printing are mainly titanium alloy grade 5 and titanium alloy grade 23. Because of their excellent strength and toughness, combined with corrosion resistance, low specific gravity and biocompatibility, they are used in aerospace and automobile manufacturing. It has a very ideal application, and because of its high strength, low modulus, and strong fatigue resistance, it is used in the production of biomedical implants. Titanium alloy grade 23, with higher purity, is the same dental and medical titanium grade as the god grade.

Aluminum alloy

At present, the aluminum alloys used in metal 3D printing mainly include AlSi12 and AlSi10Mg. Al-Si 12 is a lightweight additive-manufactured metal powder with good thermal properties. It can be applied to thin-walled parts such as heat exchangers or other auto parts. It can also be used in aerospace and aerospace industrial-grade prototypes and production parts. Components: The combination of silicon/magnesium makes the aluminum alloy stronger and harder, making it suitable for thin-walled and complex geometrical parts, especially in applications with good thermal performance and low weight.

Copper-based alloy-bronze powder

The copper-based alloy used in the market, commonly known as bronze, has good thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. It can combine design freedom to produce a complex internal structure and cooling channel. It is suitable for cooling more effective tools to insert molds, such as semiconductor devices, and can also be used For the micro heat exchanger, it has the characteristics of thin wall and complex shape.

Precious metal materials

3D printed products are becoming more and more influential in the fashion industry. Jewelry designers around the world seem to benefit the most from 3D printing rapid prototyping technology as a powerful creative industry that can easily replace other manufacturing methods. In the field of jewelry 3D printing materials, gold, sterling silver, brass, etc. are commonly used.

⑦Ceramic materials

Ceramic materials have excellent characteristics such as high strength, high hardness, high temperature resistance, low density, good chemical stability, and corrosion resistance. They are widely used in aerospace, automotive, biological and other industries. 3D printed ceramic products are impermeable, heat-resistant (up to 600°C), recyclable, and non-toxic, but their strength is not high. They can be used as ideal cooking utensils and tableware (cups, bowls, plates, egg cups and coasters) And home decoration materials such as candle holders, tiles, vases, and artworks.

However, due to the hard and brittle characteristics of ceramic materials, it is particularly difficult to process and shape, especially complex ceramic parts need to be formed by molds. The high mold processing cost and long development cycle make it difficult to meet the demand for continuous product updates.

⑧Composite gypsum powder (full-color sandstone)

One of the more widely used materials in the field of 3D printing. Objects made of full-color sandstone have a strong sense of color, and the surface of the 3D printed product has a grainy feel, and the printed lines are more obvious to make the object have a special visual effect. Its texture is brittle and easily damaged, and it is not suitable for printing objects that are often placed outdoors or in extremely humid environments.

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